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As shown in ""iPhone MAXI" concept" post, another quadrupling of resolution is inevitable, "Retina2" (or however it will be called) is surely coming.

But is there a point in even further increase of pixel density, beyond what Retina2 could offer? As it turns out, yes.

In 520 ppi screen of supposed "iPhone MAXI" or even 652 pixel per inch (PPI) for regularly sized iPhone, user could still see the edges if the image is strictly black-and-white, and no colour gradients/shades/hues are used to smooth the "staircase effect". This is one of the reasons why black and white laser printers have 1200 dots per inch (DPI) resolution, up from the necessary minimum 600 dpi.

As seen from this description, this issue covers only incredibly rare cases. This alone does not warrant going with pixel density even further. But there is more: quadrupling of resolution one more time, to "Retina3" (or however it will be called) with its 1040-1304 ppi, will let the smoothing go away, there will be no need for that. Considering that high-quality smoothing in graphic applications (mostly games) takes half of all of computational power of the graphic co-processor that is built in system on chip (SoC), ultimate pixel density will require only doubling of the graphic performance, rather than quadrupling. And, more importantly, this will even provide relative energy savings, where simpler 3D applications will make device consume less despite quadrupled resolution. 2D user interface will save energy, too, as texts will not need smoothing.

Finally, raster images such as pre-rendered user interface (UI) elements could become freely scalable without visible smoothing artefacts. Pixel density will be so high that mobile device manufacturers and software developers will forget about all of raster image quality issues and will be forever free with specific resolutions that screens could take and projected level of ppi that raster UI elements they design. This is what "resolution independence" actually is.

For those three reasons Retina3 class resolution — 4544 * 2560 for iPhone, a double of linear resolutions of Retina2, which itself is a double of linear resolutions of Retina — is going to be an ultimate pixel density that will be ever used in technology of mass production. Retina3 might début already in few years.

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